Get off, get off the rotten environment! (The City Outside)
John Updike, Endpoint and Other Poems, 2009
Erico Verissimo, who died in 1975 at the age of sixty-nine, wrote a curious, extremely original novel through the Fifties and the tale commands some consideration if only since it is so unlike that of any other important producing of the interval. The novel in dilemma is Noite (Night), a thrilling web site-turner, posted in 1954. In 1956, the story was translated into the English language by L. L. Barret and released by Macmillan in New York.
Considerably occurred in Brazilian literature in the 3 a long time in between 1930 and 1960, but we can suppose that Verissimo’s contemporaries were being then mainly associated with rural themes. Of study course, Verissimo generally stood a small aside from them in the climate and character of his novels. This is for the reason that Verissimo’s functions from the commencing of his profession explored a unique route: the urban narrative. Along with this, we need to realize that his fiction has not remained static. Verissimo, we need to bear in brain, was a developer – a writer in development, experimenting down to the close. Apart from, far more cosmopolitan than his important contemporaries, Verissimo utilised his particular experience of everyday living to generate the fascinating novels of his previous literary phase.
While resting after the publication of the second part of his saga O Tempo e o Vento (Time and the Wind) in 1951, Erico Verissimo concluded the draft of his novel Noite. What will become interesting about this novel is the diploma to which some readers and critics misread it by describing it as a simply advised tale of tugs and whores. The story is, rather, profounder than that. Element of the difficulty is that Night time, a story about the madness of daily life in fashionable metropolitan areas, has scenes and characters of unusual boldness, which includes scenes of forthright sexuality and cynicism, which had been uncommon for visitors of Verissimo’s time and put. Night time tells us about an unspeakable human tragedy, in which common folks are unconsciously trapped in the loneliness of their lives – characters who are so tragic as to be real comedian figures. In a feeling, its theme is dehumanization: that is, not seeing or hearing each and every of us as a human currently being. In spite of currently being a narrative about loneliness there is a great deal of humour in Night time.
Evidently, for many persons Erico Verissimo has penned, so to speak, a grotesque novel. One typically hears that Evening represents a bizarre interregnum in Verissimo’s do the job. Nevertheless, present-day debate has rejected that simplistic watch. To be absolutely sure, that portrait has dismissed at least a few factors. 1st, this allegoric narrative of the dark evening of the soul is not incongruent in relation to the remainder of Verissimo’s is effective. This is especially legitimate if we remember that his novels Caminhos Cruzados (Crossroads, Macmillan, 1943) and Musica ao Longe, for occasion, also specific the identical experience of “lost world”. Second, as Bordini (2006) observes, because Fantoches (Puppets) (1932), Verissimo’s first collection of brief stories, the macabre facet of the existence fascinated him. Surely, in Night Verissimo places apart the intimate language of his earlier novels. For Night time is not pointedly resolved to his large community. 3rd, with Evening the cycle of six novels about Porto Alegre will come entire circle. According to Loureiro Chaves Night is Verissimo’s best realist novel the critic also relates Night time to the “social realism” from Verissimo’s fiction prepared among 1933 and 1943.
With two eloquent and effective metaphors, Night time depicts the loneliness of the modern-day male. Just one is the town as a type of infernal machine that provokes the anti-hero, identified as simply the “Unidentified One particular”, to experience like a prey. The city is alive and signifies the senseless daily life of the unindividuated human becoming. The Unidentified A single ought to work to discover regular ground, but the town and its emissaries do not allow (“The metropolis looks like a residing staying.”). Definitely in this confront the modern-day person, the man with no features (Musil), lacks his psychological unity, like happen with the figures of Kafka, Woolf or Joyce. The other symbolic gadget utilised by Verissimo is the night by itself which represents hopeless time (“My God! – he believed – this night time does not finish… “). The textual imagery of the narrative highlights the desperate never-ending research of the anti-hero for his authenticity.
In this regard, it is essential to see that though Stegagno Picchio notes effectively Mann’s contribution to Verissimo’s fiction, she argues that: “(… ) la sua problematica resta al di qua di ogni invenzione che abbia alla sua origine il triangolo Joyce-Kafka-Proust.” For Picchio, Verissimo’s problematic stays beneath the inventions of the triad Joyce-Kafka-Proust. Despite the point that their expressive improvements monopolize our see, we have to get over and above the language use or design. We ought to know that their themes are also identical. Unquestionably, her reading of Verissimo differs from Chaves and some others that come across Verissimo carrying out an business that belongs to the tradition of the bourgeois literature novel represented by Kafka, Mann, and Musil.
Now allow us appear back briefly to the distinctions among our author and his colleagues. It is true, in fact, that Verissimo’s preference for working the economic predicament and the class-conflict on the climbing of capitalism continues to be robust. But although it unquestionably is that, we need to not forget about that Evening shifted the emphasis to psychological assessment. So, too, Verissimo writes a symbolic novel exactly where the psychological assessment is unique. And nevertheless, even wherever the material of the tale is indistinguishable from these of his colleagues, the tone and therapy are subtly various.
We require to comprehend what Erico Verissimo was reacting towards in the decades just after the 2nd Planet War. At the postwar interval, stories of confusion and conflict proliferated in Europe. Now tales categorical the anxieties and fragile hopes of a full era. Typical to the stories was a new versatility of composition, and soon the authors began to crack down boundaries amongst author and figures. Over and above that, the spontaneity of own responsiveness intensified the connection in between experience and expression. In fact, Verissimo deplored the emptiness of postwar life and Night especially responds to this epochal alter. In a environment beset by ideological divisions and hostility, literature has to sign the alterations, and the reader has to realize the importance of these indicators.
The most fascinating stories are those people in which we can establish ourselves with the main character in the story – the hero, or anti-hero. Obviously, it is not challenging to place ourselves in the spot of the Not known 1, the anti-hero of Night. But it need to be discovered that Verissimo’s anti-hero is not a révolté like the modern male from Camus. Surely he appears to be extra akin to Sartre’s people from the existentialist trilogy Les Chemins de la Liberté (1945-49). In truth, we can observe that Verissimo’s characters like Amaro, Vasco, Eugenio and this Unidentified One particular undergo the comparable indecision of Mathieu Delarue, among the some others Sartre’s people.
Adhering to the strategy that philosophical problems are dissolved in Verissimo’s operate, Night time may possibly be his initial specific tribute to the French existentialist suggestions. This is, in fact, a level that justifies further more investigation. In any scenario, we can obtain out in Night some qualities of the existentialist literature, this kind of as: the evidence of a society in disaster, the hero or anti-hero facing a “restricting circumstance”, the search for an authentic daily life, and the consciousness of flexibility. In other respects while, the novel seems, in conditions of temper and atmosphere, in the well-liked custom of the detective fiction. Probably it reminds us of a put up-war novel like Léo Malet’s Il Fait Toujour Nuit (1948). Equally are demanding, disturbing, and price alienation as the central ingredient of their figures. There is the buildup of gradual menace as the shadow of incommunicability will come at any time closer in these stories.
Night time takes the reader into a claustrophobic world the place the amnesic most important character Robert, the Stranger, is on the lookout for his identification. For this is the tale of the Stranger, the desperate searcher of his very own identity and how he was performed as a result of the dreadful evening by the risky people he achieved up in a sordid pub together the docks: Martin, the Master, with his cynical and nihilistic view of lifetime, and Claude, the dwarf, a psychopath artist who surprisingly gravitates towards his Master, the cynical pimp. His companions be successful in persuading Robert that he is a killer. Brazilian critic R. Zilberman sees the major character as a form of “human Pinocchio”, since he appears to be lost in the palms of his companions like the famed Collodi’s character. Robert narrowly escapes currently being trapped by the two night time birds when near the dawn he knows Lili, a redhead prostitute. Beside the anti-hero, she appears to be the only genuine human figure in the tale. Soon after making adore with her, he finally commences to don’t forget the functions of the day in advance of: his spouse left him (“If she arrived back again, o my God, if she arrived back again I promise that from now on anything will be different.”).
Erico Verissimo’s characters in Night time continue to be in our memory permanently: they continue to haunt us to this working day.
Bordini, Maria da Gloria.. 2006. Por trás do incidente. In: Verissimo, Erico. Incidente em Antares . São Paulo: Companhia das Letras.
Chaves, Flavio Loureiro. A narrativa da solidão. In: Verissimo, Erico. 1987. Noite . Rio de Janeiro, Globo.
Picchio, Luciana Stegagno. Storia della Letteratura Brasiliana . Torino, Einaudi, 1997.
Zilberman, Regina. 1985. Literatura Gaúcha . Porto Alegre, L&PM.